Network Layer


Address space and addressing

Network routing

Congestion control

What is Internet Protocol? What are the major functions provided by internet Protocol ?

The Internet Protocol (IP) is a set of rules that govern how data is sent and received over the internet or any other similar network.

The Internet Protocol (IP) is designed to provide several essential functions that enable reliable data transmission over the internet or other IP-based networks.

Compare difference between IPv4 and IPv6.

  1. The header length field is eliminated in IPv6.
  2. The service type is eliminated in IPv6.
  3. The total length field is eliminated in IPv6.
  4. The identification, flag, and offset fields are eliminated from the base header in IPv6.
  5. The TTL field is called hop limit in IPv6.
  6. The protocol field is replaced by the next header field.
  7. The header checksum is eliminated because the checksum is provided by upper-layer protocols; it is therefore not needed at this level.
  8. The option fields in IPv4 are implemented as extension headers in lPv6.

There are many fields in an IPv4 header. Please list 5 of them below.

  • Version
  • IHL
  • Type of services
  • Total length
  • Identification
  • Protocol
  • Header Checksum
  • Source address
  • Destination address

There are many fields in an IPv6 header. Please list 5 of them below.

  • Version
  • Traffic class
  • Flow label
  • Payload length
  • Next header
  • Hop limit
  • Source address
  • Destination address

The address space of IPv4 is limited. How do we increase its address space?

Using Network Address Translation NAT Using IPv6

What are strategies to transit from IPv4 to IPv6?

  • Dual Stack
  • Tunneling strategy
  • Header translation strategy